The rise and fall of Benito Mussolini is brought to life through the eyes of his supporters By using their stories and voices Christopher Duggan animates the human drama that played out in these years in Italy While many readers know this epic story they will they will want to read this to sense and feel the times The writing conveys the era s danger desperation and passion Duggan shows how in the chaos poverty and disappointment following World War I Mussolini like Hitler was able to seize power and solidify it He capitalized on the sentiment that he was strong enough to create order where chaos and violence most of which was perpetrated by his own party reigned He fashioned himself the superman of Nietzsche and fostered the image of The Duce who would be Italy s savior He shut down Italy s fledgling democracy dealing himself full powerFor each of the periods of his almost 20 year reign there are personal stories such as those of the suadristi violent fascists a mafia fighter in Sicily soldiers in the Ethiopian campaign students missing their teachers when the racial laws barred Jews from overnment employment fascists who uestioned the leaders around their beloved Duce the Duce s daughter as she provides war relief in Sicily and uotes from the diary of his most intimate mistress Carletta Petacci occur throughout The writers demonstrate an emotional adoration that is both religious and familial p 64 My leader our leader will power in his jaw my life belonged to him only him p 247 The heavens seemed closer to me P 248 You have instilled in us Duce with love of a son for his father p 301 Duce when you receive this letter I will be already dead fallen on the field of honor with your name Murder Shoots the Bull (Southern Sisters, guarded on the depths of my soul Some are romantic like those of the Bologna housewife who wrote him 848 letters p I feel your love strongly and thisives me the strength to remain yours and wait So many kisses I would Hudson Valley Mediterranean give my dear Benito Published this year The Pope and Mussolini The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe shows the contempt that Mussolini and his early fascists had for the Church Pope Pius XI made concessions to spare violence against clergy and church property The Churchave both passive and active approval to fascism allowing its symbols to be used by to promote fascism Duggan does not discuss this but you can clearly see the conflation of Catholicism and fascism in the cult of the DuceDuggan shows how King Victor Emmanuel III was happy to cede the job of running the country to the Duce The descriptions of the short dull king and his robust prime minister are sadly comical as the King rubber stamps any and all issues brought to him by Mussolini The king s abrupt dismissal of Mussolini could have used background on howwhy this King who permitted so much for so long finally put his foot down This is a book of Fascist Voices so while there is a chapter on the opposition you can approach the final chapters of this book with the idea that all of Italy is in thrall to Mussolini The emotional outpouring of relief when he is arrested the lack of support of his new Republic and the reactions to his death show that while there were many fanatics there was a vast silenced majority Italy did not did not have war crimes trials so fascism was never debated Duggan shows that after the war it just went underground He notes some life coming back to the movement with former Prime Minister Berlusconi blithely uoting from Mussolini and the press laughing at joke comparing the extra marital life of the two prime ministers The book ends with the voices of the modern day fascists who leave notes by Mussolini s tomb While the messages don t have the religious overtones they show continued adorationThis is a must read if you are interested in this period of Italian history This is a disconcerting useful and wonderful book Duggan s aim is to write a history of the fascist regime in Italy through the writings and testimonies of diarists and letter writers he uotes from archives all over Italy most notably the huge collection of letters ordinary Italians wrote to Mussolini which is only a fraction of the original collection most of which was destroyed by wartime bombing Duggan is a fine historian who has written an excellent history of modern Italy and the first thing to say about this book is that it is an excellent way to learn and absorb a complicated history thanks to the vividness of the personalities one meets and also through Duggan s compressed but sure handed connective tissue The story of Mussolini s rise and fall is one I ve read many times but I feel this one has fixed it in my mind in a way that none other has doneI m sure that those with a little knowledge will uibble perhaps rightly with Duggan s selection of uotations and some of his detail I myself felt fresh from a reading of naughty Ernst Nolte s very theoretical and Heiderggerian disuisition on Mussolini and Italian fascism that Duggan avoids discussion of fascist theory but as I kept reading I decided that as a whole the narrative provides and density and seriousness to Mussolini s enterprise The Christopher Duggan's new history of fascist Italy explores how the movement became embodied in the person of Benito Mussolini who occupied for many an almost divine status and ave millions of men and women a sense of pride and hope offering the prospect of national regeneration after decades of disappointmentA work of exceptional authority and originality Fascist Vo.
Download Pdf Fascist Voices ✓ Christopher Duggan – ecogenlife.org
A master of image And as he shows most Italians stood by Il Duce until the conseuences of his autarchist imperialist New Order became inescapable Duggan may be faulted for downplaying Fascism s cultural and economic sides but it s otherwise an incredibly balanced nuanced work Not uite what it promises to be The author only used a small handful of diaries cited very sparingly and for constructing his narrative relied on the same secondary sources as everyone else which is to say the now largely outdated histories of the fascist period written before Renzo De Felice published his biography of Mussolini or as a defense against De Felice s thesesThe one diary that is cited freuently is that of Clara Petacci finally declassified only ten years ago though discouragingly the manuscripts have only made available to three authors so far Heavily redacted editions were published in Italian in 2010 11 by Rizzoli the editors admitted that they were forced to omit over two thirds of the material and had to redact the entries they did include for space considerations and this book seems to have been an attempt to capitalize on their recent publication Unfortunately the Petacci diaries as published by Rizzoli are completely bizarre and self contradictory either because of mistakes by the editors journalists Mauro Suttora and Mimmo Franzinelli or because the diaries themselves are not authentic The biggest issue with the diaries is that they put Mussolini in places he was not at on those days another strange thing about the diaries is that Petacci who came from a bourgeois family had a ood education and by all accounts was not stupid was an absolutely terrible writer Because most of what she wrote makes no sense the nephew of Petacci believes that she was a British secret service agent as a way to explain her often cryptic writinguote mined as they are in Duggan s book they appear to make some sense and so the picture you et of Petacci s writing in this book is a paraphrase of a paraphrase of her actual diaries Another disappointing thing about this book was that there was no room in this intimate history for Mussolini s closest collaborator and lover for 25 years the Italian Jewish socialist Margherita Sarfatti She was with Mussolini from Forl in 1911 to his time as editor of Avanti to Il Popolo d Italia in 1915 to the March on Rome in 1922 wrote his official biography Dux in 1925 right up to Mussolini s about face in 1936 when he left the Anglo French Italian alliance and aligned Italy with Germany and Sarfatti suddenly found herself no longer welcome at Palazzo Venezia The name of Sarfatti only appears three times in this book Once in one of the uotes from the Petacci diaries as the well known art patron and critic and Mussolini s biographer and in relation to two brief uotations from her 1925 biography It seems that Duggan doesn t even know who Sarfatti wasNeither was there much room for his wife Rachele Guidi or other collaborators of the early days like Angelo Oliviero Olivetti founder of the Fasci d Azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista which evolved into the Fasci di combattimento or Angelica Balabanoff Enrico Corradini Alceste de Ambris etc All important figures you can hardly write a book about fascism especially an intimate history without mentioningThe theses seem to be thata Mussolini was a megalomaniac and a buffoon the former of which may be partially true but far from the whole truth and the second of which is the common result of reading too much into and projecting onto Mussolini the worst excesses of Achille Starace s own undeniable buffooneryb fascism was nothing but propaganda and empty promises There was lots of propaganda and it was very powerful and influential but again there was a lot to it than that and a lot was built and achieved for better and for worse in concrete termsc the supposed big revelation from Petacci s diaries that Mussolini was an anti semite based on one sentence out of a diary of tens of thousands of pages and contradicted literally hundreds of times elsewhere not only in speeches but by the fact that he was sleeping with a Jewish woman for 25 years and a disproportionate percentage of the Fascist erarchs were Jewishd restatement of the Black Legend alleging that Pius XI and Pius XII were Hitler s Popes a conclusion reuiring the author to ignore a truly staggering amount of evidence to the contraryHaving said all of the above Stop Whining--and Start Winning good things about this book were that the author writes in an engaging manner and the narrative really flows For the most part he avoids taking an overly polemical tone Where primary sources the only primary sources really used are the aforementioned handful of diaries are used they re well integrated into the rest of the narrativeI think Duggan is aood author but maybe not an outstanding researcher Thorough research and smooth reading Shows what can be done by an academic with access to primary sources Very detailed explanation of how the Duce duped Italy in the chaos that followed the Great War Each part of the unfolding story references the letters and diaries of the people and their love of the the Duce. T among the majority of the Italian population He examines the extraordinary personal relationships that millions of Italians had with Mussolini explores the religious dimensions of totalitarianism and discusses why the 'cult of the Duce' still resonates in contemporary Italy Fascist Voices is a fresh and disturbing look at a country in thrall to a charismatic dictat.
Nti bourgeois nature of Mussolini s creation slowly emerges and in a way you can see how Fascist Italy was really a kinder entler version of the Bolshevik revolution without Cheka mass murders and enslavement And Duggan does speak about moments in history that I almost never see discussed such as that Mussolini sent a uarter of a million Italian soldiers to the Eastern Front who fought alongside the Wehrmacht when it invaded the USSR Here s what s disconcerting Duggan can find very little evidence of any opposition to fascism except among a few professional trade unionists and difficult characters His conclusion and that of the dozens of voices he uotesis that Italy working class middle class academics journalists intellectuals was fairly satisfied with fascism thought it a success not just until but through the atrocious conuest of Ethiopia with poison as up until Mussolini imposed the racial laws in 1938 at Hitler s urging Moreover even then after an initial feeling that Mussolini had done something really wrong Italians soon began to be irritated by the complaints of Italy s Jews about their deprivation of citizenship and began to feel that perhaps Musso had been right after allIn other words the egregiously shallow claim made by Daniel Goldhagen that all Germans bear racial Il sale della vita guilt for the horrors of Nazism is as true about prewar Italians as it is false about Germans Myreatest criticism is that Duggan doesn t make much of the the most consistent and continuous source of resistance to the regime which came from serious Catholic laymen and individual priests the middle management of the Church was on board with the regime although Duggan is right to make an exception of the Pope himself Duggan provides plenty of evidence for this the brave young priest who is beaten to death by thugs for keeping his boys in the Catholic scouting movement etc But he doesn t exempt them from My Favorite Things general blame Perhaps I am overinfluenced by thereat Italian war novel The Red Horse which follows a roup of serious young Catholics through the war but this seems to me a blemish and an oversimplification on Duggan s partHere s what s disconcerting Had to read this for my History class at school It was long winded and I had to stop 230 pages in Extraordinary and disturbing My mother went to high school in Mussolini s Italy She was the only irl in her class and took Yugoslav citizenship after the war even though her parents became Italian After reading this book I know why Dr Duggan received two awards for it and was honoured by the Italian The Nine of Us government with the Commander of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity this epic history of fascist Italy explores the development and support of Italian support for fascism using individual diaries Duggan exploresthe reaosn for support and trust often in Mussolini rather than his ideologically incoherent and oppotunistic Party Buidling on the failure of Liberalism to build an ecomomically strong and modern Italy Mussolini surgeto pwoer was seen as a source of relief by many Italains disnagaed frm politics and looking for a better futureDuggan s work exxplores the failure of Fascism to deliver the modern anti materialistoc and ethical mass nationalism promised and the deep This is a pretty solid book if a bit over academic and tedious at timesIn a nutshell it s the history of the Italian fascism the rise the fall and the conseuences but with a spin letter upon letter from devoted followers of the regime writing to the Duce and themselves sharing personal stories on how they felt and lived the timesThis is a uniue spin because you don t normallyet to hear the ordinary people retell an important part of the history And it s fascinatingThe religious and sexual devotion of women the dutiful and unrepentant soldiers the odd sceptic Words from Mussolini are also there private exchanges with his mistresses including his penchant for drama and hyperboleThe author oes through uite a few periods the humiliation after WWI the anarchy what liberalism meant in Italy in those times the rise of the fascism the domestic policies the invasion of Ethiopia the fickle relation with Germany and envy of Hitler the poor conduct of the Italian army in WWII the almost too sudden removal of Mussolini from power the subseuent civil war and the history of overnight denial that still affects the Italian societyThe only downside is that Christopher ets a bit prosaic with too much focus on the letters and not enough on the historical elements around them All in all though he manages to do a reasonable work with this book An interesting piece for history buffsIgor Remarkable book detailing life under Benito Mussolini s Fascist overnment Duggan draws from diaries letters and private correspondence to detail the upheaval wrought by Mussolini s reign He shows Mussolini s appeal rested on several pillars Italian nationalism frustrated since Garibaldi s Risorgimento a sick barely functioning democracy Italy s disastrous performance in World War I and diplomatic betrayal at Versailles By Duggan s account Mussolini was the right man in the right time charismatic decisive and. Ices makes use of rarely examined sources letters and private diaries newspaper reports and secret police files to uncover how ordinary people experienced fascism on a daily basis and how its ideology influenced their beliefs values language and lifestyleTracing fascism from its conception to its legacy Christopher Duggan unpicks why the regime enjoyed so much suppor.
Christopher Duggan è 1 DOWNLOAD
Christopher John Hesketh Duggan was a British historian specialising in the political social and cultural history of modern Italy He began his career as a research fellow at Wolfson College Oxford and then at All Souls College Oxford In 1987 he moved to the University of Reading where he remained until his death He had been Professor of Modern Italian History since 2002